Louis Dionne Programming and Categories, Oh My!

A tentative notion of move-independence

This post will try to answer a simple question: when is it legit to call std::move twice on the same object? While some people would say “never”, I actually think the answer is more subtle. To capture these subtleties, this article will introduce the concept of move-independence, which I believe to be a useful notion to keep in mind when writing generic libraries.

A recent article posted on Reddit outlined the difference between std::move(object.member) and std::move(object).member. The article looked at potential pitfalls of using std::move(object.member) that would cause it to undesirably move from a shared object, and concluded by recommending the usage of std::move(object).member. I, for one, would tend to agree with this advice. However, some people on Reddit criticized std::move(object).member by saying that it encourages moving twice from object, and that it should thus be avoided. This brings us to the question at hand: when is it okay to call std::move multiple times on the same object?

Note that the exact same question applies to std::forward, since this one is essentially a “use std::move when you can”.

Well, first, if we don’t do anything with the result of calling std::move, then it is obviously safe to call it multiple times on the same object:

auto x = ...;
std::move(x); // didn't do anything with it
std::move(x); // obviously safe to call std::move on x again

With this triviality out of the way, it hopefully becomes clear that we need to study the behaviour of std::move in relation to other operations we wish to perform on the resulting xvalue. To put ourselves in the most general setting, we’ll consider two arbitrary operations performed on the same xvalue. For convenience, we’ll encode these operations as two functions f and g, but there’s no loss of generality because these functions could do anything at all:

auto x = ...;

Given the above, where f and g could do anything, our goal is now to determine what properties must be satisfied by f and g for this code to be safe. Of course, without any additional information about the behaviour of f and g, the above code is usually a bad idea because if f decides to move from x, we will be calling g on a moved-from object, which is most likely not what we want. But before you scream and say this is always wrong, consider the following code:

auto x = std::make_tuple("abc"s, "def"s);
auto abc = std::get<0>(std::move(x));
auto def = std::get<1>(std::move(x));

Clearly, this code is valid, because std::get takes its argument by reference (so it does not move from x), and returns a reference to the n-th element of the tuple. Precisely, the overload of std::get that’s used is the one taking a rvalue reference to the tuple, and returning a rvalue reference to the n-th element. Since we’re fetching two elements at different indices, (rvalue) references to two different objects are returned and used to move-initialize abc and def. So there’s no chance of using an object after it has been moved from, in this case. Now, you might ask whether this is good style, and suggest that we use the following instead:

auto x = std::make_tuple("abc"s, "def"s);
auto abc = std::move(std::get<0>(x));
auto def = std::move(std::get<1>(x));

However, this code has the exact same problem as the code in the motivating article: if x is refactored to hold references to shared data instead, we’ll be moving from this shared data if we don’t remove the calls to std::move. That’s a serious problem, because I write a lot of generic code that looks like

template <typename ...T, std::size_t ...i>
void foo(std::tuple<T...>&& tuple, std::index_sequence<i...>) {

If I were to change it to use(std::move(std::get<i>(tuple))...);, and if the use function moved from its arguments, I could end up hiding a move-from-a-shared-object deep inside a generic library, and set my users up for hours of fun debugging a crash in their application. And that, IMO, is definitely not good style.

OK, so when is it safe to call two functions on the same xvalue? Intuitively, it is when those two functions do not interfere with each other, i.e. they do not access subobjects that are used in both functions. More formally, let be the set of non-static data members of f’s parameter that are accessed by f, and let be that of g. Then, f and g can be said to be move-independent with respect to their (sole) parameter if

Note that the notion could be extended to multi-valued functions, by considering the sets and of non-static data members of the i-th parameter accessed by f and g, respectively.

The idea here is that as long as a function does not use a subobject that is used by the other function, then both functions can be called on the same xvalue, and we can dispose of the result as we wish (i.e. move from it) without risking to end up using a moved-from object. However, note that this definition is too strict to my liking, because it makes the following two functions non move-independent, while it would make sense to think that they are:

template <typename Tuple>
decltype(auto) f(Tuple&& t) {
  // just access the third element
  return std::get<0>(std::forward<Tuple>(t));

template <typename Tuple>
decltype(auto) g(Tuple&& t) {
  // again, just access the third element
  return std::get<1>(std::forward<Tuple>(t));

Also, while a mathematician might be satisfied with the above definition, it is obviously not applicable to most real-world use cases. Indeed, getting the set of non-static data members used by a function is at best error-prone, and usually impossible or impractical. Hence, it would be interesting to have a better definition for the working C++ programmer, one that could be used to verify whether two functions are move-independent without looking at their definition. Unfortunately, I was not able to get to such a definition without constraining myself to the very specific case of accessor functions (like std::get).

But even without a user-friendly definition, where does this bring us? Well basically, I can ask for the functions I use to extract elements of a tuple to be move-independent. In other words, for any two distinct indices i and j, I need f<i> and f<j> to be move-independent, where f is the function I wish to call on my tuple. This way, I can go back to my generic library and continue writing stuff such as

template <typename Tuple, std::size_t ...i>
void foo(Tuple&& tuple, std::index_sequence<i...>) {
  //  ^ for some function f, for example std::get

without worrying that I might be moving from an object twice. The most common case, by far, is where f == std::get or some equivalent of it. However, it’s easy to come up with a use case where the functions would be something else, such as slicing a tuple at two disjoint ranges of indices. For example, using the Boost.Hana library,

auto tuple = hana::make_tuple("abc"s, "def"s, "ghi"s, "jkl"s);
auto abc_def = hana::slice_c<0, 2>(std::move(tuple));
auto ghi_jkl = hana::slice_c<2, 4>(std::move(tuple));

This will create two tuples containing the first two and the last two elements of the original tuple, moving them instead of doing a copy. This is safe to perform, since we’re slicing the tuple at two non-overlapping ranges. Plus, it wouldn’t be equivalent to write std::move(hana::slice_c<0, 2>(tuple)), for the copy would have already been made inside of hana::slice_c, the library being unable to rely on the fact that tuple can be moved from.


While it is most of the time a bad idea to call std::move on an object multiple times, this article presents a use case in which it makes a lot of sense to do so, i.e. decomposing a tuple into its subobjects. In addition, this article attempts to define a notion of move-independence that makes it easier for generic library writers to express the constraint that a set of functions must not pull the rug from under each other’s feet when called on a common xvalue.

As the title suggests, this article is experimental in the sense that the notion of move-independence presented here shouldn’t be taken as an absolute reference. Indeed, I feel like a better formalization might be possible, and I hope that people will chime in on the issue of better formalizing the usage of std::move and std::forward.